Caroline Bond day was born November 18, 1889 to Georgia and Moses Stewart. As a child she attended Tuskegee elementary where her mother was a teacher. In 1905 she entered the first class of Atlanta University High School and graduated in 1908. She then attended Atlanta University, where she received her bachelor's degree in 1912. While attending Atlanta University she took courses in Drama and appeared in several Shakespeare's plays. Although her major and courses are unknown, it's possible that she was influenced in her graduate school and career choices by W.E.B. Du Bois (Drake 1979). She also attended Radcliffe and recieved her bachelor's degree in 1919. While at Radcliffe she took anthropology courses with Hooton, the physical anthropologist from Harvard who would later direct her research project. Hooton also helped her recieve funding twice to continue her graduate work. On March 1, 1920 she married Aaron Day, who was an instructor at the college. Day published many articles conditions. about being racially mixed in a race-concious society, and in 1926 she won third place in an opportunity fiction contest with her story "The Pink Hat." The story showed her feelings about being mulatto and the injustices in society. In 1930 Day published a short article in Crisis called "Race-Crossing in the United States." In the article she set the stage in the black community for her later study by presenting previous ones. Hooton , anxious to have Day's work done, completed the statistical and anthropometric analysis with the aid of his graduate students. The complete was published in 1932 as a part of the Harvard African Studies series, of which Hooton was the editor. Upon it's publication Day recieved her master's degree. Although she had intially planned to work towrds her doctorate she wasn't able to due to her health. On May 5, 1948, Caroline Bond Day died from heart complications at the age of fifty-nine.
By her own calculations Day was an approximate mulatto, having 7/16 white blood, 1/16 Indian blood, and 8/16 Negro blood (1932:plate 34).